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Biosphere
   Fauna
   Flora
   Forest

Fauna   

 

      The landscape of the Pirin Mountains is diverse and includes a notable alpine area, dotted with many lakes, forested mountain landscapes that define the unique fauna richness in the mountain.
National Park Pirin established in 2091 species and subspecies of invertebrates (spiders, millipedes, insects, snails, etc.).. This figure includes 294 rare species, 216 endemics, 176 and 15 relict species present in the world and European lists of endangered species.
      Of vertebrates found 247 species. This includes 6 species of fish, 8 species of amphibians, 11 reptiles, 159 species of birds, 45 species of mammals.
By fish eel before inhabited area of ??the park is included in the Red Book of Bulgaria as extinct and mountainous mullet was once captured in the park.

      In Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature includes 2 species of amphibians and reptiles - Tree frog and turtle shipoopoashatata.

      Of birds in the Red Book of Bulgaria included 31 species in the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature - 2 species in the European Convention for the protection of wild flora and fauna and natural habitats - 148 species, while the European Directive on the conservation of Birds - 40 species. Golden Eagle, Saker Falcon, triprastiyat woodpecker, wood-grouse, hazel hens, Corncrake are part of this diversity and need special protection.

  5 species of mammals are included in the Red Book of Bulgaria, the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature -12 species in the European Convention for the protection of wild flora and fauna and natural habitats - 37 species, while the European Directive on the conservation of Habitats - 24 species. Special attention and protection they need the brown bear and the Balkan chamois.

    Invertebrates
  They include thousands of species, many of which are endemics, relicts, rare and in many cases actually zastrashteni from extinction. Some of them are used as indicators in assessing the wealth and status of fauna in the mountains. Species diversity of invertebrate species found in 2091 animals shows that the National Park is a territory with significant faunistic wealth. This fact is determined by the presence of 218 endemic, 176 and 294 rare relict (stenotopni) taxa, including present and 15 species included in the World European Red Lists.

Vertebrates

    Pisces
  There have been a total of 6 fish species, representing about 6% of the freshwater ichthyofauna of Bulgaria. Two species, rainbow and brook trout pastyrva are not typical representatives of the European ichthyofauna, and are introduced North American species. In reservoirs of the Pirin they are displaced by artificial introduction of fry.
Amphibians and reptiles
Probably proven inhabitants of Pirin National Park Class amphibian and reptile species are 19: 8 species of amphibians and 11 kinds of reptiles.
Birds
The territory of Pirin National Park are down 159 bird species, which constitute 40% of species diversity on the territory of Bulgaria.
Mammals
There have been 45 species of mammals, which constitute 50% of the Oklo terrestrial mammals in the country. As a result of field studies to establish occupation of the 12 species of bats.

      Relicts and endemics
  Relicts among grybnachnite Pirin refer to the so-called glacial relicts. Among these are fish and mullet Balkan mountain trout among amphibians and reptiles mountain frog, lizard and adder live births, among birds, Tengmalm owl, woodpecker and belograbiyat triprastiyat Woodpecker, among mammals - the snow vole.
The territory of Pirin meet and local forms (subspecies) grybnachni animals unique to the Balkans - Balkan endemics. Such species are represented Macedonian lizard belogyrbiyat woodpecker lark Balkan, Alpine zavirushka, kachulatiyat Tit, rock nuthatches, brown forest vole and chamois.

    Species conservation status and measures for their protection.
  Highest Bry species conservation status is among the most numerous class grybnachni animals - birds, followed by mammals. Among fish species such planiskiyat balkaskata mullet and trout. Among birds subject to special measures must be: a small spotted eagle, eagle malyk, golden eagle, eagle toed, Lavelle falcon, peregrine falcon,, capercaillie, hazel grouse, mountain quail, corncrake, woodcock, dove hralupar, pernotonoga owl, belograb Woodpecker, woodpecker tripryst. Among the measures necessary to preserve the more important are: to clarify the reasons for the reduction of each species in the park, located within the territory of large raptors and stricter protection of syotvetnite forest areas. Many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates are extremely sensitive to negative anthropogenic influences. In many cases, conservation of endangered animal populations requires conservation of their natural mestoobitaniya in intact form, rather than protection of individual representatives (Berne Convention). The establishment of conservation significance of different habitats for successful conservation of wildlife is based on criteria (marked by the Berne Convention): species richness and population and the presence of rare (stenotopni), endemic, relict and endangered species (included in the global or European red books).

  Rare species inhabit the most isolated localities in small populations. Any negative change in climate, pollution and destruction of natural habitats can be fatal and lead to extinction of species in local or areal plan.