BG    EN  



The plant world of Pirin - a place where nature has generously deployed their skills

  Pirin is one of the most original flora in relation to our mountains. It is characterized by exceptional plant diversity and high proportion of endemic component. Reason for this are too varied conditions caused by a combination of southern latitude and high altitude. Moreover, in the mountains and especially in the Pirin National Park, the conditions of relief are too diverse and favor the existence of a large number of ecological niches that serve as habitat for various plant species. Particularly important role in the distribution of plant species play reaction bedrock. Here occur as siliceous and calcareous sites. Lakes and streams also diversified conditions, creating wetland habitats for hygrophytes species.

Lower plants and fungi

  Algae - relatively the least studied group of mountain plant. The reason is their great diversity, and labor consumption of the collection and determination.
The total number of species in the territory of Pirin National Park is 165. They belong to 13 orders, 25 families and 62 genera. This number includes a minimum quantity of species, as represented in the list includes only those who are definitely established in the area of ??the park. Probably the number of types of algae is much higher.

Mosses (Brioflora)

  Brioflorata of Pirin National Park includes 329 species. Representatives of 4 classes: Marchantiopsida, Sphagnopsida, Andraeopsida and Bryopsida. There are no representatives of the class Anthoceropsida.
Species belonging to 64 families and 138 genera. With most species are
represented families: Grimmiaceae - 23 species, Amblydtegiaceae - 23 species, Bryaceae - 21 species, Brachytheciaceae - 19 species, Sphagnaceae - 15 species, Dicranaceae and Scapaniaceae - in 13 species and Polytrichaceae - 12 species.
Most numerous genera with 15 species of Sphagnum, Bryum with 13 species, Scapania and Grimmia with 11 species and Mnium and Brachythecium with 10 species.
Moss flora does not show a large number of species of conservation importance. One type is included in the Berne Convention / Buxbaumia viridis / and two types in Annex II of the Directive on the conservation of wild flora and fauna and its habitats / Buxbaumia viridis and Dicranum viride /.


  The territory of Pirin National Park "are set 367 species of lichens, which is about 52% of stocks in Bulgarian lisheyna flora. The vast majority of them belong to class Ascolichenes and are only minimally imperfect lichens and lichens with unclear systematic position.
Most representatives have order Lecanorales, about 90% of lichens. With more than 10 species are 12 families, most wealthy families such as Lecideaceae, Theloschistaceae, Parmeliaceae, Lecanoraceae, Physciaceae, Cladoniaceae. The highest species richness is in the genera Caloplaca, Lecanora, Cladonia, Peltigera, Parmelia, Lecidea and others.

Mushrooms (macromycetes)

  Established in Pirin taxa refer to 3 departments (Myxomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), 3 classes, 28 orders, 67 families, 152 genera and 375 species. With regard to its environmental characteristics and specificity of the substrate (host), established in macromycetes Park is divided into two main groups: saprotrofi, digesting dead organic matter and biotrofi, growing on living plant organisms.
Six species are included in the IUCN Red List of fungi in Bulgaria, the European Red List and Annex I of the Berne Convention.
In the Pirin National Park are developing a number of mushrooms with excellent taste as: Agaricus arvensis (aniseed mushroom), A. silvaticus (brown forest mushroom), Boletus edulis (porcini plain), B. pinophillus (pine manataraka), Cantharellus cibarius (chanterelle), Lepista nuda (violet), Macrolepiota procera (parasol), Marasmius oreades (agaric) and others.

Higher plants

  The territory of Pirin National Park established in 1315 a total of species and intraspecific taxa, which represents about one third of the flora of Bulgaria. Species belonging to 484 genus of 94 families.
Analysis of the floral elements shows that the flora of the park is largely maintained their aboriginal identity. Ruderal and weed elements are few.
Pirin flora is characterized by a high proportion of endemic (local) species. The presence of endemic flora complex within the park is concentrated mainly in the north, but some of the endemic species, particularly the Balkans are widely available throughout the Park. In the Pirin National Park found 18 local, 17 Bulgarian and 86 Balkan endemics.

Local endemic species grow only in the Pirin Mountains and nowhere else in the world!  

  Such are the Pirin poppy (Papaver degenii), Pirin meadow-grass (Poa pirinica), and Urumov Kozhuharov oksitropis (Oxytropis urumovii, O. kozuharovii), Yordanovo cabbage (Brassica nivalis ssp. Jordanoffii), Banderishka lady's mantle (Alchemilla bandericensis), Pirin lady's mantle (Alchemilla pirinica), Kelererova asineuma (Asyneuma kellerianum), Pirin sandwort (Arenaria pirinica), Pirin sedge (Carex pirinensis), Pirin zloletitsa (Erigeron vichrensis), David mullein (Verbascum davidoffii), small fescue Pirin (Festucapirinica), Stoyanovov lady's bedstraw (Galium demissum ssp. Stojanovii), Pirinski devesil (Heracleum angustisectum), Yavorkova rattle (Rhinanthus javorkae), Pirin thyme (Thymus perinicus), Koshaninovo rabid tree (Daphne kosanini).
More interesting than Bulgarian endemics are Ferdinandova gasharka, Urumov krivets, Bulgarian vyatarche, Kostova sedum. Balkan endemic species are numerous, some of which are common vidove.Takiva like golden columbine, drebnolyuspest cloves, Balkan broom and many others.
Many plants are rare and protected. A total of 114 species occurring in the Pirin National Park are included in the Red Book. Of these, the category "missing" is a kind of - Carex rupestris, the category "endangered" are 15 species and category of "rare" - 98 species. The total number of species protected by law is 54.

Medicinal Plants

  For the territory of Pirin National Park are down 182 species assigned to the category of medicinal plants from 59 families. Most numerous species of 20 species of Rosaceae, Lamiaceae Asteraceae 17 species and 13 species.

Pirin National Park Directorate is mapped all fields of medicinal plants in the park.

  Of 182 identified species of medicinal plants, 2 were listed as endemic (Balkan tweeter and the Pirin Mountains as part of Thyme Thymus sp. Diversa), is a relict species Orchis pallens (as part of Orchis sp. Diversa), 10 species are included The Red Book of Bulgaria, 6 are protected by law and 17 types of treatment under the special regime of management. Of species included in the Red Book of Bulgaria and protected by law, the highest prevalence have spotted gentian (Gentiana punctata L.) and Casa (Rodiola rosea L.), and Bearberry is localized near x. Yavorov.

Economically valuable species

  Of particular economic zanachenie are tsenopopulatsiite of black bilberry (Vaccinium myrthillus L.), which occupies the largest area of ??medicinal plants in the park. With the economic importance are species thyme (Thymus sp. Diversa) and ochanka (Euphrasia officinalis complex). Interest in terms of economic use in the park and medicinal plants are distributed in communities egrechnite as alpiiskiya dock (Rumex alpinus L.), chuvena.